Tuesday, 16 July, 2019

Community Transit to Add New Service in March 2016

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Community Transit is set to make service improvements to the local and commuter bus network in March 2016. This comes on the heels of a successful ballot measure, Proposition 1, which will feed rapid growth of the network over the next few years. The agency is targeting a modest service increase of 3,000 hours for March. Community Transit plans to make service improvements in three primary areas: span of service and midday frequency improvements on local routes, trip additions to commuter service, and extension of select service. In total, fifteen trips will be added to the network and a further six trips will be extended.

Eleven new trips will be added to improve span of service and midday frequency:

  • Swift (Everett Station-Aurora Village) – Two early morning trips are being added with corresponding trips from each terminal (one in each direction) starting at 4.40am.
  • Route 112 (Mountlake Terrace-Ash Way) – Seven weekday trips will be added midday between 10am and 2pm to provide 30-minute frequency throughout the day until 7pm.
  • Route 240 (Stanwood-Smokey Point) – One weeknight eastbound trip will be added; it will depart Stanwood at 8.25pm.
  • Route 271 (Gold Bar-Everett Station) – One weeknight westbound trip will be added; it will depart Gold Bar at 8.55pm.

Four trips added to commuter routes:

  • Route 413 (Swamp Creek-Downtown Seattle) – One weekday southbound trip will be added at 5.48am.
  • Route 415 (Downtown Seattle-North Lynnwood) – One weekday northbound trip will be added at 3.15pm.
  • Route 421 (Marysville-Downtown Seattle) – One weekday southbound trip will be added at 5.15am.
  • Route 435 (Downtown Seattle-Mill Creek) – One weekday northbound trip will be added at 3.55pm.

Six trips will be extended on one commuter route:

Map of Route 880. (Community Transit)
Map of Route 880. (Community Transit)

All trips on Route 880 (Mukilteo-University District) will be extended to serve the Mukilteo Ferry Terminal. The route is a commuter service that currently operates nine trips between Mukilteo and University District, but six trips are truncated in North Lynnwood at the 35th Ave W & 148th St SW stop. Extension of those trips will offer riders better connections to the ferry and local service during weekday peak morning and evening hours.

The March 2016 service improvements will be paid for entirely by the agency’s reserve fund, not new taxes. However, Community Transit does have authority to collect an additional 0.3% in local sales tax, which is slated to begin on April 1, 2016. The new tax is estimated to deliver up to $25 million more in annual revenue once imposed. Community Transit has a vision for a much more frequent network and new local routes, enhanced paratransit and vanpool system, and a second Swift line in operation by 2018. But the process to achieve these improvements will take time.

Community Transit will begin a comprehensive service planning process in early 2016 to determine future service improvements. The first substantial deployment of Proposition 1-related service is anticipated to begin at the September 2016 service change. Successive rounds of service improvements will occur in following years. Community Transit had already programmed 21,000 service hours through 2019 prior to Proposition 1’s passage. To ramp up resources to provide new service, the agency will go on a hiring and training spree in Spring 2016 and begin acquisition of additional equipment.

Sunday Video: Urbanized

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“Cities are always the physical manifestation of the big forces at play. Economic forces. Social forces. Environmental forces.”

That’s just one tidbit from Urbanized, a 2011 documentary on the universal challenges that cities big and small are facing today. Producer and director Gary Hustwit takes viewers across the globe and interviews some of the top thought leaders in urban design and city planning. Upbeat music and fantastic visuals complement a journey through issues both modern and timeless: poverty, transit systems, parks, street design, and everything in-between.

What We’re Reading: The Northeast Corridor

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The green campus: Cornell University in New York City is going deep into new campus building using Passivhaus technology.

Community vibrancy: The connection between dense, compact neighborhoods and economic development.

Local outfall: Where all of Capitol Hill’s rainwater goes.

Brutalist or heroic?: The case for changing what we call “Brutalist” to “Heroic”.

Long live Westlake: The Westlake Bikeway lawsuit has ended meaning that the bikeway could be open in Summer 2016.

The NEC: Data shows why most Northeast intercity travelers still go by car, but the corridor is still the most popular in the United States for rail travel. Greater Greater Washington explains how the corridor could be transformed by 2040.

Nevermind: Developer abandons redevelopment plans for The Stranger building in Capitol Hill.

Better options: How to reduce bicyclists’ exposure to air pollution.

Map(s) of the Week: How many calories you would burn walking between New York Subway stations in Manhattan mapped in Vignelli fashion. Meanwhile, a map showcasing cities across the United States that have begun to remove parking minimums.

Thanks Giving (I Like Peanuts!)

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“I don’t have a transfer…,” says this sullen brother, trailing off into awkward silence. A lanky dark-skinned fellow about my age, maybe a few years younger and a few inches taller, dressed in an orange waterproof jacket which would work well as a dress on me. Rainier and Forest.

“Well, let’s see,” I say, noticing the oblong package he’s eating from. “Are those peanuts?”
“Yup.”
“Can I have some?”

Wordlessly he pours a generous handful into my open hand. “That’s cool,” I say. “Thank you! This is my dinner!” There is a barely perceptible smile as he begins walking to the back. “Thank you!” I exclaim again. Want to make sure he heard me say that. Partway down the aisle he stops and returns, giving me the rest of the peanuts package. Other people are getting on now, and amidst the hubbub I yell, “Thank you!!” There’s a sideways nod of acknowledgement as he retreats to the rear. We continue on toward downtown.

“The next stop is Bayview, that’s by Leows, and WorkSource,” I say into the mic. Periodically I’ll tell them to have a good night. Very important, after all!

At 4th and Pike a huge mob is waiting. I’m delighted. Here they come. The brain has to be at full attention to be present with each face, over and over, changing in seconds, each new person a human being with histories and stories of their own, having nothing to do with those who passed before or after. It’s a rush. Here’s my dear friend Tracy, out of nowhere, with her brother tagging along. “Nice to meet you!” It is a sea wash of faces, beautiful people I’ve seen somewhere before, shapely fingers or tubby ones, swiping passes and tossing change. Figures with bags and gristle and style, echoes of emotions and headspaces I’ve lived in myself. I check the back door in the mirror. The orange jacket guy is going out, but no, he’s holding for a second, indecision, looking at the stream coming in the front, and now he’s coming up to me. Tracy’s up front, and the mob is nigh unstoppable, but I’m happy to force it all to a halt if he wants to leave through the front doors. A lot of local chaos at the front.

“Did you wanna step out here?” I say to the man.
“I’ll wait for them to get on.” Shaking his head. He must have a question.
“Okay.”

That can be quite a wait, as it is tonight. The tumultuous wave of humanity continues gushing in for several more minutes, a cacophony of coats and purses and textures, leathery skin and eyeliner, young bunnies in love and ticking time bombs, the tired and the hungry, the last straws and those gentle, neutral faces you can never guess about. I’m reminded of the notion that each of these people, far from being extraneous supporting characters in my blurry periphery, are in fact at the center of their own universe, with loves and losses and families and problems and dreams of their own. The sheer size of such a truth only barely exists inside my comprehension. The earth may be small, but humanity makes it enormous.

Finally they’re all in. Mr. Orange steps forward. What did he want?
Just to shake my hand.
He extends his arm over someone else’s head. “Ey, thank you,” he says with enthusiasm, smiling wide like I’d never expect.
“Dude, thank you for feeding me!”
“No, thank you! For everything!”
“Thank you!” We’re laughing now. I think he’s just happy to be here, in an accepting and loving space. He says, “you have a blessed night, man!”
“You too!”

Later on in the U-District, a very pale– and very old– we’re talking straight out of the bible here– homeless man pipes up from somewhere behind me. “Are you going to Ballard?”
“No. We’re just a 49.” I say something about the 44, and how it does go to Ballard.
“Do you have any food?”
“I do not have any food.”
“Okay.”

As he’s gathering his things, medium gray and white hair swinging, loading up his elbow crooks and fingers with various bags, it occurs to me. Of course.

“Oh, wait, hey! I do! Check it out! D’you like peanuts?”
“Yes!” he exclaims.

That’s two people in one night, giving away the same package of peanuts and feeling great about it. I wonder if he passed it on as well!

“I Love Everybody!”**

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“Haaswundrinahcoul’ haatransfergosheltuh,” said the young boy in front of me. Which meant, “Hi, I was wondering if I could have a transfer to go the shelter?” He slurred it out in the same tonality as yesterday, eyes averted. A pudgy young thing in his late teens. Everywhere but within the US, a homeless overweight person would be an oxymoron; homelessness inside and outside this country are very different experiences.*

“Hey, I remember you from yesterday! Here you are. As long as you don’t ask me that everyday!”

He sheepishly bowed his head and scurried out of sight. I doubt very much he was homeless, what with his unmatted hair, clean skin, and new shoes– after a while you learn to thin-slice a person’s economic condition pretty quickly– but as I’ve said before, I need to give him the benefit of the doubt. What do I know? Maybe it’d only been a few days for him.

A few stops later, a tall man in clean clothes says, “I just got out of King County Jail.” We’re at Broadway and Roy, at the north end of trendy Capitol Hill, by Rom Mai Thai, Poppy, and the Deluxe, and definitely nowhere near any sort of prison facility. He’s between thirty and forty, an olive-skinned African-American mix, bald, with dark eyes and brows, like an Italian movie star. He speaks quietly, head tilted, hands outstretched in street sincerity.

I sigh inwardly. But that part of me is still there, the sympathetic unjudging good part of me which I hope I never lose. Out loud I say, “this is for you,” handing him a transfer.

Thank you,” he says, with an truthfulness in his eye contact and timbre that’s hard to fake. He pauses, the way you pause to thank someone who’s saved your life.

He walks to the rear, tall and lanky and alone. I watch him in the mirror, way back there, going through his tiny bag of belongings. He unrolls a pair of jeans, stands, and changes his pants.

I’m beginning to believe.

He’s trying to be modest, but there’s nowhere else to do it. We’re on an afternoon 49, populated with hipsters and students. You get to a state of living where shame is something you can no longer hide, and you just have to get on with the difficult business of inching forward. Who cares what these other people think. Can’t afford the luxury of being able to do something about it. He stays generally out of their eyelines, putting on fresh clothes in an air of solitary preparation, keeping to himself.

At Campus Parkway a bunch of students gather their headphones and paraphernalia, preparing to exit. A girl readjusts her Coach purse, twisting her lipstick applier for an extra pucker. Meanwhile, he’s walking back up to me. I smile at him through the mirror, seeing he wants to speak.

“Hey.” Louder than a whisper, softer than conversation. “Thank you for helping me.”

Instantly I know he’s telling the truth. His tone of voice says it all. The fact that he walked all the way back up here says it all. In moments like this you want to reach out to your fellow man, grab him by the hand or hug him tight, just to let him know the world cares. There is a space for you that only you can fill, my friend.

“Oh, it’s the least I could do. Congratulations, man, on getting out. Welcome back to the real world!”
He sighs heavily into a smile, letting go the burden weighing down his frame. “Thanks!”
“I’m so glad you got out. That’s a big deal.”
“I’s in there sixty-nine days, man.”
Don’t ask about his crime, I think to myself. Not the point. “Too long! Well, not as long as some other guys, but anytime in there is too long,”
“I learned some valuable life lessons in there.”
“Right on.”
“And now it’s time to….”
I know the sentiment he’s about to express, and I preempt him by passing on words an ex-felon once earnestly told me: “this is phase two! It’s a new phase, but it’s still you!”
He looked at me. “Yeah, man!”

In those two words was a zeal I’ve never heard. I could see how the phrase resonated. In his voice was, well, love. Love for himself, for all the possibilities of goodness he possesses, that sensation of ebullient hugeness which fills you, where for a moment you see the belief your parents, your siblings and lovers, your ancestors had in you. You want to make real the greatness they saw, and you remember how beautiful the world has always been. A door is open, and for now somehow, all things are new. He felt the goodness in him being acknowledged.

“Congratulations, man. It’s a big deal. I admire that a lot.” Referring to his spark. Let him ride that flash of insight forever. No wonder he didn’t look like your typical inmate at the outset. He was humble, not overcompensating with bravado, and nor was he broken or damaged of spirit. Phase Two.

Thank you, my human cohorts, for proving wrong my assumptions, and righting my path of thinking.

*The last part of that sentence stems from my experiences abroad, which offered a perspective of such abject horrors as to remind me that, by contrast, homeless populations within urban US cities live like kings. It isn’t even a comparison. I realize how insensitive that might initially sound, but truly, we have no idea how good we have it here.

Regarding obesity and the homeless– yes, 1 in 3 homeless are obese, like the rest of America. Of course, weight does not equal wealth; healthy food is generally more expensive, and fast food is often strategically more readily available in impoverished areas, where produce is often of lower quality. Crime, traffic, and unsafe playground equipment reduce opportunities for exercise, and lower-class populations statistically experience greater stress levels, sleep deprivation and more. Further facts and reading here and here.

**The title comes from a high school graduation memory, which I remember with greater clarity than anything else about the event. Upon receiving the plaque on stage, a student I didn’t know, overcome with joy, turned to the crowd, and, not knowing how else to express himself, yelled, “I love everybody!” I imagine the largeness of heart our former inmate experienced was something similar.

Read more of Nathan’s bus stories at www.nathanvass.com.

Tukwila Makes Targeted Transit and Pedestrian Improvements Near Southcenter

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The City of Tukwila has delivered a series of pedestrian and transit facility improvements near Westfield Southcenter, a major regional shopping mall. The bulk of the improvements are focused on Andover Park West between Tukwila Parkway and Strander Boulevard. Andover Park West is a primary arterial in Tukwila’s commercial core. On the west side of the street the arterial provides key access points to the shopping mall, while on the east side of the street the arterial provides access to chain stores, dealerships, and other commercial businesses.

Pedestrian and transit improvements near Southcenter. Andover Park West corridor improvements in blue, new bus bays as yellow pin, and improved bus stop as green pin.
Pedestrian and transit improvements near Southcenter. Andover Park West corridor improvements in blue, new bus bays as yellow pin, and improved bus stop as green pin.

The City packaged a mix of street improvements, new transit facilities, and replacement of local water mains as part of the overall Tukwila Transit Center Project. Specifically, the improvements include:

  • Installation of bus shelters, landscaping, waiting areas, and treated pavement
  • Widening of the right-of-way
  • Rechannelization of the street
  • Addition of landscaped medians
  • Installation of street lighting, security cameras, and traffic loops
  • Replacement of sidewalks, curbs, gutters, and accessible ramps
  • Replacement of a water main.

Andover Park West is one of the busiest streets in Southcenter due to its proximity to the interstate highways and use as a thoroughfare to commercial properties flanking it. The original street consisted of two through lanes in both directions (2 + 2). Without turn pockets and pullouts for buses, the busy street and fast speeds had long posed serious problems for buses that stop in-street, people on foot, and those driving to and from local businesses. Tukwila sought to improve the situation by widening the right-of-way in targeted ways. This included the addition of a center lane for turn pockets and landscaped median islands as well as bus pullouts in each direction near Baker Boulevard.

Andover Park West looking south in 2011. (Google Streetview)
Andover Park West looking south in 2011. (Google Streetview)
Andover Park West looking south in 2015. (Google Streetview)
Andover Park West looking south in 2015. (Google Streetview)

The new configuration is arguably a safer design for a variety of reasons.

Firstly, turn pockets ensure that motorists have a place of refuge in the middle of the street. This makes turns in and out of parking lots simpler. The prior configuration could have required that three lanes of traffic remain unobstructed long enough for a motorist to traverse all of them in order to get out of a parking lot. Unsurprisingly, this situation can lead to many motorists “gunning it”, which in some circumstance can lead to poor consequences. So this should be seen as a positive change for all users of the right-of-way.

Secondly, landscaped medians reduce the number of locations where motorists can sit in the middle of the street and introduce an “obstacle” to the streetscape. It’s widely understood that treelined streetscapes and street furniture can change the “window” in which motorists see themselves and others. They present immediate obstacles to the space for motorists to react to, which slows down speeds. Admittedly, the number of landscaped medians are few, but they should still help to control speed.

Thirdly, with buses stopping at pullouts instead of in-street, the threat of motorists weaving and rear-ending them should be largely eliminated.

Finally, pedestrians now have wider sidewalks to use. The previous sidewalks were narrow and often meant that people could not walk side by side. Pedestrians should now have much more room both on the sidewalk and between them and vehicles, which is perhaps the most important benefit to sidewalk widening.

The transit component to all of this is central. Bus stops on Andover Park West have proven to be highly popular with local employees and shoppers for years. During day-time hours, it’s typical to see dozens of riders of Routes 128, 150, and 156 and RapidRide F Line board and disembark buses as they pass through. Recognizing this, Tukwila made targeted transit improvements with these additions:

  • Multiple bus bays with seating, windshields, and decorative canopies
  • Real-time arrival signs, bus bay signage, and signature signage to mark the location of the transit facilities
  • Bicycle storage and receptacle bins
  • Wider sidewalks, painted concrete, and tactile surfaces near platform edges
  • Comprehensive lighting systems, security cameras, and retained landscaping areas.

The overall design feels much more comfortable and safe for riders compared to the old design. Sitting at the stops (instead of on walls) is now a real option for most riders thanks to ample seating. Multiple bays spread out the transit facilities so that riders don’t feel like they have to bunch into one area. The bus pullout puts fast moving vehicles further away, reducing noise and the stress that cars can pose to riders waiting at stops. And the generous amount of lighting throughout the transit facilities means that riders are better seen by all, increasing the general perception of safety.

Southcenter transit bays on the east side of Andover Park West.
Southcenter transit bays on the east side of Andover Park West.
Closer view of Southcenter transit bays on the east side of Andover Park West.
Closer view of Southcenter transit bays on the east side of Andover Park West.
Transit bays with bike stalls and RapidRide features. (Google Streetview)
Transit bays with bike stalls and RapidRide features. (Google Streetview)

The new transit facilities required one bus stop to move a few blocks north. The old northbound stop at Andover Park West and Strander Boulevard was moved to the north side of the Andover Park West and Baker Boulevard intersection. This was a practical change because it places the stop much closer to the shopping mall entrance. Safe pedestrian facilities have been in place for years to guide shoppers and employees toward the complex’s center. The bus stop changes also make it easier for riders to transfer to eastbound Routes 128 and 906 on the south side Baker Boulevard at Andover Park West. (That stop received some treatments similar to those on Andover Park West.)

Riders will note that the transit facilities consist of two sets of bus bays: one for regular routes and one for RapidRide F. The RapidRide F bays come with all of the standard bells and whistles for off-board payment, stop map, real-time arrival signs, and service branding. Buses accordingly stop at their respective bays only.

Tukwila has certainly made huge strides to improve the experience of pedestrians and transit users, but there’s only so much that the City can do on its own. Older developments still prevail throughout the area, and many of those are not as oriented to people on foot. Within mere feet of the eastern transit bays of Andover Park West, many businesses remain only partially accessible to those who walk or take transit, despite recent additions of walking facilities.

Patrons walking in a drive aisle with no dedicated pedestrian facilities.
Patrons walking in a drive aisle with no dedicated pedestrian facilities.
California Pizza Kitchen provides accessible connection. (Google Streetview)
California Pizza Kitchen has an accessible connection. (Google Streetview)

Unfortunately, the prevailing suburban development pattern largely focuses buildings in the middle of parking lots. Those are obstacles to pedestrians to be sure, but it is only reinforced with perimeter landscaping that dissuades pedestrians from taking short cuts and the general lack of direct paths dedicated to them. We know that pedestrians will naturally try to take the shortest distance between two points wherever possible.

This is a very real problem that requires special attention to fix. Property owners and the City would do well to learn from the desire lines of pedestrians, and accordingly respond by retrofitting sites with them in mind. In the meantime, people will continue to walk on drive aisles or landscaping, options that are neither safe nor desirable.

Woonerf Watch: Capitol Hill Edition

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Changes coming soon to this stretch of E John Street. (Photo by Stephen Jackson)
Changes coming soon to this stretch of E John Street. (Photo by Stephen Jackson)

A street improvement project that is about to start construction this winter on Capitol Hill might take a lot of people by surprise, mostly because it’s coming in the guise of a park improvement project. But it’s been in the works for quite some time.

Highway Mission Creep

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Last week, I wrote about the progress of the highway funding bill through Congress. A few politicians—Marco Rubio, John Kasich and Rick Santorum—don’t want to fund highways at the federal level any more, endorsing transportation devolution. I also talked about Chuck Marohn’s Strongtowns no new roads message, which has proven to have some appeal in the urbanist community.

I didn’t delve into the history of we got to the overbuilt highway system we have today. It’s a story of mission creep. President Dwight D. Eisenhower was instrumental in building the Interstate Highway System through the Federal Highway Administration (FHA). The lore goes General Eisenhower was impressed with the efficiency of German autobahn system during World War Two and sought to emulate it in the United States. The catch was Eisenhower didn’t envision plowing highways through major cities. Eric Jaffe tracked down the Eisenhower memorandum detailing his chagrin at highways steamrolling through cities in this City Lab article.

(No Exit) Fast Lane Tolls
This Andy Singer cartoon highlights the destruction urban highways have wrought on cities, often justified with questionable traffic volume projections. (Andy Singer)

Eisenhower obviously was naive in not anticipating that once he fully unleashed the highway industrial complex, its appetite would grow, and it would set its sights on urban areas. Eisenhower went on to compound his naivete with aloofness while the FHA bulldozed through cities under his nose during his eight years in office. Much like his warning about the military industrial complex, Eisenhower’s warning about the highway industrial complex seems futile, like Dr. Jekyll saying on his way out the door: by the way I’ve created a monster, good luck with that.

(No Exit) A Highway Map of the USA
Andy Singer pokes fun at endless highway expansion in this cartoon from his book “Why We Drive.” (Andy Singer)

Once the Interstate System was set in motion, the FHA eventually did pave highways through almost every major American city, cementing suburban sprawl growth patterns and hollowing out and sapping the vitality out of vibrant urban neighborhoods. Jaffe estimated 335,000 homes were razed in the first decade of Interstate highway construction alone. Throughout its history, interstates have displaced millions of Americans. Highway planners disproportionately chose to level and pave over neighborhoods with large minority populations. In many cities, they bisected thriving black neighborhoods, hastening their decline and depressing property values.

Redlining and urban highway construction were a one-two punch that did much to impoverish black communities, proving racial oppression wasn’t just a lingering legacy of slavery but also an active ongoing process that continued to tighten the screws on black Americans. Every American generation has found a way to put its own signature on the ongoing saga of racial oppression—segregation, discriminatory voting laws, discriminatory urban “renewal,” neglected urban schools, racial profiling and police brutality—and intermittently pay attention long enough to make some progress.

They may have chosen to level minority communities, but, at least in part, highway engineers’ intentions were good in building urban highways. Speeding interstate travel and making intercity trips more convenient is a noble goal; however, highway expansion in urban areas proved to be misguided. Congestion persisted even as cities sacrificed more and more neighborhoods—and the tax bases along with them—to the chopping block for highways. Each new highway promised to reduce congestion and commute times, but almost universally the promise rang hollow. More highways begat more traffic congestion.

highwayplan_detail03_600
This map shows the havoc that the I-94/I-35 interchange wreaked on Minneapolis. A few dozen city blocks were blasted off the map and paved. In total, Singer estimates freeway construction cost Minneapolis at least 52 million dollars per year in lost property tax revenue.  (MnDoT)

In 1968, mathematician Dietrich Braess formulated what became known as Braess’ paradox: in a congested road network, the addition of a new route will increase overall travel times. Seattle Urban Mobility Plan said the paradox can also be expressed as “the theory that direct routes often function as bottlenecks, and so reductions in total capacity can reduce congestion.” Cities have seen results that support the conclusion. Seoul saw traffic volumes decrease and property values go way up after it demolished Cheonggye Expressway, its downtown highway viaduct, and replaced it with a linear park. Stuttgart, San Francisco, Portland, New York, and Milwaukee have seen similar results when tearing down urban freeways.

Recently, Amherst professor Anna Nigurney argued the Braess paradox stops applying at sufficiently high congestion levels and a new route will have no effect on travel times, which is almost as damning and undercuts the justification for expanding urban highway infrastructure. Nigurney’s findings bolster the case against highway expansion, as Lisa Zyga explains:

In a sense, the negation of the paradox actually adds to the paradox’s original conclusions: when designing transportation networks (and other kinds of networks), extreme caution should be used in adding new routes, since at worst the new routes will slow travelers down, and at best, the new routes won’t even be used.
This academic view of highways has yet to enter the mainstream. Generally the public is very supportive of infrastructure spending. It sounds wholesome. PBS’s slant is pretty clear from this article’s title alone: The Highway Trust Fund keeps bridges from falling down, but will Congress reauthorize it? The Maddowblog couldn’t help but lambaste Republican presidential candidates for not wanting to invest in infrastructure at the federal level. It’s worth criticizing the Republican plans since cutting transit funding, an explicit goal in most GOP plans, is a bad, dangerous idea. However, to not criticize the transportation status quo is to overlook how state and federal Departments of Transportation are saddling us with an ever-growing portfolio of highways of dubious value and a massive maintenance backlog that is coming due.

Bike Works

Bike Works